Catherine then sought to have inoculations throughout her empire and stated: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, and frightened of it, were left in danger". Peter also intervened in a dispute between his Duchy of Holstein and Denmark over the province of Schleswig (see Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff). Potemkin had the task of briefing him and travelling with him to Saint Petersburg. Reddaway, W.F. Her rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives, who were both nobles and royal relations. [96], Catherine appointed Ivan Betskoy as her advisor on educational matters. [20] She became friends with Princess Ekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, the sister of her husband's official mistress, who in Dashkov's opinion introduced her to several powerful political groups that opposed her husband, though Catherine had been involved in military schemes against Elizabeth probably to get rid of Peter III at the next stage at least since 1749. She appointed General Aleksandr Bibikov to put down the uprising, but she needed Potemkin's advice on military strategy. [42], By mid-June 1796, Zubov's troops overran without any resistance most of the territory of modern-day Azerbaijan, including three principal cities—Baku, Shemakha, and Ganja. Teplov, T. von Klingstedt, F.G. Dilthey, and the historian G. Muller. In the second partition, in 1793, Russia received the most land, from west of Minsk almost to Kiev and down the river Dnieper, leaving some spaces of steppe down south in front of Ochakov, on the Black Sea. [8][9] The more than 300 sovereign entities of the Holy Roman Empire, many of them quite small and powerless, made for a highly competitive political system as the various princely families fought for advantage over each other, often via political marriages. She enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is often included in the ranks of the enlightened despots. A ball was given at the imperial court on 11 September when the engagement was supposed to be announced. Finally Catherine annexed the Crimea in 1783. [60] By 1800, approximately 2 million inoculations (almost 6% of the population) were administered in the Russian Empire. Her Swedish cousin (once removed), King Gustav IV Adolph, visited her in September 1796, the empress's intention being that her granddaughter Alexandra should become queen of Sweden by marriage. Peter supposedly was assassinated, but it is unknown how he died. After the event, Empress Catherine raised him to the rank of count and made him adjutant-general, director-general of engineers, and general-in-chief. Taxes doubled again for those of Jewish descent in 1794, and Catherine officially declared that Jews bore no relation to Russians. Old Believers were allowed to hold elected municipal positions after the Urban Charter of 1785, and she promised religious freedom to those who wished to settle in Russia. [14] Despite Johanna's interference, Empress Elizabeth took a strong liking to Sophie, and her marriage to Peter eventually took place in 1745. She thus spent much of this time alone in her private boudoir to hide away from Peter's abrasive personality. Orlov died in 1783. In 1777, at the age of 43, he married his 18-year-old relative, Catherine Zinovyeva, variously described by sources as either a niece or a cousin, but left no children by that marriage. [141], On 16 November [O.S. In the 1770s, a group of nobles connected with Paul, including her first wife, Nikita Panin, Denis Fonvizin and Countess Dashkova considered to introduce the Constitution in Russia, and the families of Michael Fonvizin and Ivan Puschin thought that this was the part of something like a new coup to depose Catherine and transfer the crown to Paul, whose power they envisaged restricting in a kind of constitutional monarchy. Only 400,000 rubles of church wealth were paid back. The endowments were often much less than the original intended amount. After Catherine II was seated on the throne she rewarded the participants of the revolt, lavishing on them titles, money, estates and serfs. She lost the large territories of the Russian protectorate of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania and left its territories to Prussia and Austria. In 1768, she formally became the protector of political rights of dissidents and peasants of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which provoked an anti-Russian uprising in Poland, the Confederation of Bar (1768–72), supported by France. In 1786, she assimilated the Islamic schools into the Russian public school system under government regulation. [101] The Establishment of the Moscow Foundling Home (Moscow Orphanage) was the first attempt at achieving that goal. Throughout Russia, the inspectors encountered a patchy response. Her mother's brother became the heir to the Swedish throne after her second cousin Peter III converted to Orthodoxy. When Sophie's situation looked desperate, her mother wanted her confessed by a Lutheran pastor. She called together at Moscow a Grand Commission—almost a consultative parliament—composed of 652 members of all classes (officials, nobles, burghers, and peasants) and of various nationalities. Grigory was born in 1734 in the family of state councilor Grigory Ivanovich Orlov, who rather late married Lukerya Ivanovna Zinovyeva. On the following day, the formal betrothal took place. In 1777, the empress described to Voltaire her legal innovations within a backward Russia as progressing "little by little". Orlov definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. CATHERINE II (1729 – 1796; ruled 1762 – 1796). Catherine was stretched on a ceremonial bed surrounded by the coats of arms of all the towns in Russia. Pre-eminent figures in Catherinian Russia include: Marriage, reign of Peter III, and coup d'état, Partitions of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Old Style Date: 21 April 1729 – 6 November 1796, "Despot" is not derogatory in this context. In 1787, Catherine conducted a triumphal procession in the Crimea, which helped provoke the next Russo-Turkish War.[39]. The plan was another attempt to force nomadic people to settle. ", James A. Duran, "The Reform of Financial Administration in Russia during the Reign of Catherine II.". [130] By separating the public interests from those of the church, Catherine began a secularisation of the day-to-day workings of Russia. These reforms in the Cadet Corps influenced the curricula of the Naval Cadet Corps and the Engineering and Artillery Schools. ", Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, “Legal Identity and the Possession of Serfs in Imperial Russia,”. [76] Pugachev had made stories about himself acting as a real tsar should, helping the common people, listening to their problems, praying for them, and generally acting saintly, and this helped rally the peasants and serfs, with their very conservative values, to his cause. In 1780, she established a League of Armed Neutrality, designed to defend neutral shipping from being searched by the Royal Navy during the Revolutionary War. [citation needed]. A shrewd statesman, Panin dedicated much effort and millions of rubles to setting up a "Northern Accord" between Russia, Prussia, Poland and Sweden, to counter the power of the Bourbon–Habsburg League. King Augustus III of Poland died in 1763, so Poland needed to elect a new ruler. [91][92], Catherine also received Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun at her Tsarskoye Selo residence in St Petersburg, by whom she was painted shortly before her death. Catherine's son Paul had started gaining support; both of these trends threatened her power. [70] This happened more often during Catherine's reign because of the new schools she established. [127] While claiming religious tolerance, she intended to recall the believers into the official church. [75] Their discontent led to widespread outbreaks of violence and rioting during Pugachev's Rebellion of 1774. 18 de abril de 1772 Gregory fue enviado a Rumania para conversar con los turcos. / 5 de octubre de 1737 greg.-24 de diciembre de 1807 jul. The commission had to consider the needs of the Russian Empire and the means of satisfying them. Orlov — (Grigori Grigorievitch, comte) (1734 1783) officier russe. Under Catherine's rule, despite her enlightened ideals, the serfs were generally unhappy and discontented. In 1767, Catherine decreed that after seven years in one rank, civil servants automatically would be promoted regardless of office or merit. This war was another catastrophe for the Ottomans, ending with the Treaty of Jassy (1792), which legitimised the Russian claim to the Crimea and granted the Yedisan region to Russia. The treaty also removed restrictions on Russian naval or commercial traffic in the Azov Sea, granted to Russia the position of protector of Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, and made the Crimea a protectorate of Russia. He died at the age of 52 in 1791. [82][83], Catherine enlisted Voltaire to her cause, and corresponded with him for 15 years, from her accession to his death in 1778. Catherine saw Orlov as very useful, and he became instrumental in the 28 June 1762 coup d’état against her husband, but she preferred to remain the dowager empress of Russia rather than marrying anyone. Grigory Orlov, military officer and lover of Catherine the Great, empress of Russia from 1762 to 1796. Despite his objection, however, on 28 June 1744, the Russian Orthodox Church received Princess Sophie as a member with the new name Catherine (Yekaterina or Ekaterina) and the (artificial) patronymic Алексеевна (Alekseyevna, daughter of Aleksey) i. e. with the same name as Catherine I, the mother of Elizabeth and the grandmother of Peter III. She placed strictures on Catholics (ukaz of 23 February 1769), mainly Polish, and attempted to assert and extend state control over them in the wake of the partitions of Poland. Children of serfs were born into serfdom and worked the same land their parents had. Sophie came to be known by the nickname Fike. Historians have not always been so kind to her memory, and all too often one reads accounts of her private life, ignoring her many achievements. Catherine separated the Jews from Orthodox society, restricting them to the Pale of Settlement. The crown contains 75 pearls and 4,936 Indian diamonds forming laurel and oak leaves, the symbols of power and strength, and is surmounted by a 398.62-carat ruby spinel that previously belonged to the Empress Elizabeth, and a diamond cross. This second lost pregnancy was also attributed to Saltykov; Born at the Winter Palace, officially he was a son of Peter III but in her memoirs, Catherine implies very strongly that Saltykov was the biological father of the child. A letter from Alexey Orlov, Catherine’s favorite responsible for Peter’s imprisonment said that he was killed accidentally during a fight caused by his tantrum. A key principle was responsibilities defined by function. [68] Although she did not want to communicate directly with the serfs, she did create some measures to improve their conditions as a class and reduce the size of the institution of serfdom. She did this because she did not want to be bothered by the peasantry, but did not want to give them reason to revolt. A further 2.8 million belonged to the Russian state.[62]. But during and after a disastrous marriage, Catherine had many lovers – and there were even rumors that these lovers included animals. [53], Catherine imposed a comprehensive system of state regulation of merchants' activities. Peter, however, supported Frederick II, eroding much of his support among the nobility. Empress Elizabeth knew the family well: She had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus (Karl August von Holstein), but he died of smallpox in 1727 before the wedding could take place. Catherine's decree also denied Jews the rights of an Orthodox or naturalised citizen of Russia. Still, there was a start of industry, mainly textiles around Moscow and ironworks in the Ural Mountains, with a labor force mainly of serfs, bound to the works. [111], In 1762, to help mend the rift between the Orthodox church and a sect that called themselves the Old Believers, Catherine passed an act that allowed Old Believers to practise their faith openly without interference. Catherine II: Rise to Power Enter your search terms: A German princess, the daughter of Christian Augustus, prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, she emerged from the obscurity of her relatively modest background in 1744 when Czarina Elizabeth of Russia chose her as the wife of the future Czar Peter III . [50] In a 1790 letter to Baron de Grimm written in French, she called the Qianlong emperor "mon voisin chinois aux petits yeux" ("my Chinese neighbour with small eyes"). She did not allow dissenters to build chapels, and she suppressed religious dissent after the onset of the French Revolution. Catherine's undated will, discovered in early 1792 by her secretary Alexander Vasilievich Khrapovitsky among her papers, gave specific instructions should she die: "Lay out my corpse dressed in white, with a golden crown on my head, and on it inscribe my Christian name. These were the privileges a serf was entitled to and that nobles were bound to carry out. [33], During her reign, Catherine extended by some 520,000 square kilometres (200,000 sq mi) the borders of the Russian Empire, absorbing New Russia, Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Right-bank Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Courland at the expense, mainly, of two powers—the Ottoman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. [67] The only thing a noble could not do to his serfs was to kill them. Alexander Radishchev published his Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1790, shortly after the start of the French Revolution. Catherine completed the conquest of the south, making Russia the dominant power in south-eastern Europe after the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. Russian economic development was well below the standards in western Europe. [11] The young Sophie received the standard education for an 18th-century German princess, with a concentration upon learning the etiquette expected of a lady, French, and Lutheran theology. [146] Olearius's claims about a supposed Russian tendency towards bestiality with horses was often repeated in anti-Russian literature throughout the 17th and 18th centuries to illustrate the alleged barbarous "Asian" nature of Russia. [6][failed verification], Sophie's childhood was very uneventful apart from the duel. 5 November] 1796, Catherine rose early in the morning and had her usual morning coffee, soon settling down to work on papers; she told her lady's maid, Maria Perekusikhina, that she had slept better than she had in a long time. If a noble did not live up to his side of the deal, the serfs could file complaints against him by following the proper channels of law. Some claimed Catherine failed to supply enough money to support her educational program. Look it up now! Catherine waged a new war against Persia in 1796 after they, under the new king Agha Mohammad Khan, had again invaded Georgia and established rule in 1795 and had expelled the newly established Russian garrisons in the Caucasus. Peter also still played with toy soldiers. Malecka, Anna " Did Orlov buy the Orlov ? Catherine did initiate some changes to serfdom. Catherine promised more serfs of all religions, as well as amnesty for convicts, if Muslims chose to convert to Orthodoxy. Catherine worried Potemkin's poor health would delay his important work colonizing and developing the south as he had planned. Catherine's own narrative of these years (her vaunted memoirs, which remained unpublished until the mid-nineteenth century) described Peter as childish, tempestuous, unloving, and enamored of only three things: his mistress, his toy soldiers, and Prussia. Desfile Retrato de la emperatriz Catherine Alekseevny Fue escrito sobre la base del retrato del artista sueco Alexander Roslin. Olga Constantinovna of Russia, great-great-granddaughter of Catherine, was the maternal great-great-grandmother of King Felipe VI. The ultimate goal for the Russian government, however, was to topple the anti-Russian shah (king), and to replace him with a half-brother, Morteza Qoli Khan, who had defected to Russia and was therefore pro-Russian. In 1769, a last major Crimean–Nogai slave raid, which ravaged the Russian held territories in Ukraine, saw the capture of up to 20,000 slaves. Just prior to her arrival in Russia, she participated in a duel with her female second cousin from Anhalt. Olga Constantinovna of Russia, great-great-granddaughter of Catherine, was the paternal grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and his descendants which include Prince Charles, Prince of Wales; his son, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge; and William's son, Prince George of Cambridge; the three direct heirs to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It also stipulated in detail the subjects to be taught at every age and the method of teaching. Gustav Adolph felt pressured to accept that Alexandra would not convert to Lutheranism, and though he was delighted by the young lady, he refused to appear at the ball and left for Stockholm. [90], During Catherine's reign, Russians imported and studied the classical and European influences that inspired the Russian Enlightenment. On ... See full summary » Directors: Kai Hansen, Maurice Maître | Stars: V. Mikulina, N. Aleksandrova, Nikolai Vekov, S. … Sophie recalled in her memoirs that as soon as she arrived in Russia, she fell ill with a pleuritis that almost killed her. Catherine II (Екатери́на Алексе́евна; 2 May 1729 – 17 November 1796), also known as Catherine the Great, born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.wikipedia After his death, the Empress Catherine wrote, "Although I have long been prepared for this sad event, it has nevertheless shaken me to the depths of my being. Poland ceased to exist as an independent nation.[139]. In terms of elite acceptance of a female ruler, it was more of an issue in Western Europe than in Russia. Most came from three large extended families. She disliked his pale complexion and his fondness for alcohol at such a young age. Catharina II (Die Große) Sophie Friederike Auguste, Empress and Autocrat Romanov of All the Russias (born von Anhalt-Zerbst (Askanier)) was born on month day 1729, at birth place, to Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg and Johanna Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp (born Holstein-Gottorp, Oldenburg). This spurred Russian interest in opening trade with Japan to the south for supplies and food. George E. Munro, "The Empress and the Merchants: Response in St. Petersburg to the Regulation of Commerce under Catherine II", "The Economic Contributions of the German Russians to the Imperial Russian Economy.

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